Gotham JA Miele, Sr, PE
Water conservation cleans Long Island Sound, RL Swanson, DJ Tonjes
Marine vessels serving New York City, W Goyzueta, J Chen, K Byrnes, R Ferro
Pilot biological nutrient removal, B Bodniewicz, K Mahoney
Enhanced beach protection 2000, FJ Oliveri, F Loncar, M Ellis
Telemetering in New York, S Rozelman, S Aziz
Job order contracting, MP Quinn, P Schrayer
Operational benefits of celebrating Water Week, RE Adamski, H Einsohn, M Keating, A Lamarche, B Olivieri
CSO signage: expanded notification, S Rozelman, P Lutz, F Loncar
Executive director's message, P Cerro-Reehil
Marine vessels serving New York City
by Walter Goyzueta, John Chen, Kevin Byrnes, and Rudy Ferro
Vessels and volume
Web extra: Summary of New York's water pollution control plants
Water quality survey of New York Harbor
Web extra: Areas of New York's CSO Abatement Program
Cracking down on illegal connections
Marine Section CSO and storm water
Municipal sludge vessels have been a part of New York City's sludge disposal system since the late 1930s. The Federal Work Projects Administration (WPA) funded and built the first three Motorized Vessels(M/V): M/V Wards Island, M/V Tallman Island, and the M/V Coney Island. Before these vessels were available, sludge was routinely discarded into the surrounding waters from the few sludge facilities operating at that time. As a result, the harbor waters became so polluted that incoming traffic would find their hulls cleaned of any marine life. Unfortunately, much of the protective coatings would be damaged as well.
The Department of Sanitation, which ran the marine operation until the Department of Public Works took control in the 1940s, began restricting sludge disposal into the rivers at the end of the Depression. The concept of using marine vessels to transport and dispose of sludge to offshore waters was taken from Scotland. The New York City vessels, with a total capacity of 40,000 ft³, each served the plants for which they were named.
A crew of 20 men was common at this time with a stewards department and radio officer as part of the complement. During the war years (1941-1945) the tankers stayed away from the usual dumping area in the Narrows in fear of German U Boats that lurked off the coast. Instead, the sludge vessels were dispatched to the open waters in the Long Island Sound.
After the war, New York City's expansion resulted in the production of more sludge. The number of crews was increased from three to six, allowing for all treated sludge to be removed from the City. When the M/V Owls Head was built in 1952, the crew size was reduced from 20 to 14 men.
In 1972, with regulation under the Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act (MPRSA), the vessels began to dump 4.5 mi past the Ambrose Lighthouse (12-mi site) with permits granted by USEPA. By that time the M/V Bowery Bay (1959) and M/V Newtown Creek (1967) had joined the M/V Owls Head. At the same time, the first three vessels (M/V Wards Island, Tallman Island and Coney Island) were retired from the City's service and came to be used by the private sector for hauling sludge for New Jersey Municipalities. In 1974 the M/V North River joined the sludge hauling operation. The fleet for this program consisted of four vessels until the M/V Bowery Bay was retired in 1987.
The largest vessels, M/V Newtown Creek and M/V North River, are semiautomated motor vessels with more than twice the capacity of the original sludge vessels. The crew size was reduced to eight in 1980 and reduced again in 1987 to the current size of six. In 1987, MPRSA was amended, and ocean dumping was moved from the 12-mi site to a 106-mi site. As a result, the operation of the M/V was changed to in-harbor work transporting sludge to four newly constructed New York City ocean-going barges for disposal to the 106-mi site.
In 1991, to comply with the Ocean Dumping Ban Act (ODBA), the M/V Newtown Creek, North River and Owls Head began transporting sludge from plants without dewatering facilities or other means of conveyance to plants with dewatering facilities for processing. Since barges were no longer needed, three were retired, and one, the Udalls Cove, was kept as part of the fleet for emergencies.
The efficiency of scheduled trips for sludge disposal was 99+% in the year 2000. Efficiency is measured in the number of trips made compared with the number of trips required to service the plants.
A condition survey has been performed on all sludge vessels during the past 2 years by an independent surveyor in conjunction with the Marine Section staff. Extensive audio gauging and inspections were made to determine the overall condition and subsequent life expectancy of the vessels.
The M/V Newtown Creek and the M/V North River were rated in good condition with an expected operating life of more than 20 years. The M/V Owls Head was evaluated to be in fair condition. Because the M/V Owls Head has limited capacity and because sludge production is increasing at the City's plants, the procurement of a replacement vessel was initiated.
Three of the vessels are described below:
The sludge vessel operation has four crews, each with six personnel. They work 12-hr shifts. Two vessels are used on a 6-day schedule but can be used on any day of the year. The third vessel is either dockside for repairs or in a standby mode.
The sludge vessels normally serve four City plants that do not have dewatering facilities (Owls Head, Rockaway, Newtown Creek and North River). When necessary, say because of emergencies or other factors, sludge vessels are dispatched to service other plants. Except for shipyard or major repairs, the crews operate and maintain the vessels. Major repairs occur about every 2 years.
In-harbor waters navigated include the East River, Upper and Lower Bay, Hudson River, Jamaica Bay, and Kill Van Kull. Typically, the Wards Island, Hunts Point, and 26th Ward plants are used as the delivery points for dewatering.
NYCDEP currently monitors the quality of water throughout New York Harbor. NYCDEP also identifies long-term water quality trends and determines City-wide compliance with New York State water quality standards.
NYCDEP's monitoring programthe New York Harbor Quality Surveywas established by the Metropolitan Sewerage Commission in 1909. It now provides the longest documented assessment of human effects on the City's water environment.
NYCDEP's water Quality Survey covers stations throughout New York Harbor. The Department monitors surface and bottom water quality and analyzes pollutant concentrations in sediment samples. In 1991, NYCDEP inaugurated the first custom-made vessel for year-round water quality sampling in New York Harbor. The HSV Osprey is an aluminum-hulled, 55-ft twin-engine diesel craft that contains a shipboard laboratory equipped to meet all quality control and sample handling requirements set forth by USEPA.
As mandated by New York State, the NYCDEP is engaged in abating illegal sewer connections. The tools that the City uses are:
The Shoreline Survey Program uses one of two recently acquired 25-ft vessels, Poseidon or Neptune, to inspect outfalls. To augment the surveys, the Sentinel Monitoring Program was initiated. This monitoring program draws samples from the harbor and compares the results with established baselines. This program also uses the Poseidon or Neptune,
NYCDEP implemented a litter and floating debris collection program for the City's major combined sewer outfalls (CSOs). Interim containment facilities were begun in 1993 and were completed in 1997. The scope of NYCDEP's marine-skimming operation is dictated by the size of the Port of New York. New York City covers a land area of about 300 mi². By far the largest metropolitan population center in the nation, New York holds a population of over 7.3 million people, with 6400 mi of streets. As a major harbor and seaport, New York City includes 578 mi of waterfront and 14.3 mi of beaches.
The City-wide floatables containment programa component of the Citywide Floatables Programcovers twenty-three sites in three zones with combined sewer and storm overflows. The total land area is 83,505 acres. Of this, a planned 63,745 acres are slated for CSO containment systems.
For marine skimming operations, the City is divided into four Zones:
The interim CSO system consists of containment booms and trash traps at major CSO outfalls coupled with mobile skimming vessels to collect and remove floatables. Roll-off dumpsters are staged at Jamaica Bay at Hendrix Creek, the 26th Ward WPCP, Whale Creek, the Newtown Creek WPCP, and Bowery Bay. The NYCDEP marine-skimming vessels include the Ibis, Piping Plover, Green Heron, and Snowy Egret. Belt type skimmers with hydraulic transmission power systems of approximately 45 ft overall length and capable of holding 20 yd³ of debris.
The New York City
is a large class harbor skimming vessel. This vessel
is of the net rather than belt varietycapable of
handling timber and other heavy debris. The 120-ft
375-gross-ton vessel, commissioned in 1993, was
constructed at Amfels shipyard in Brownsville, Texas.
is powered with twin Schottel high volume, low
velocity jet drives and has a capacity of 24 tons of
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